Tackling Education in the World of Additive Manufacturing (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 63)

AM is here to stay but, for many, the technology is a valuable opportunity watched from afar. Why? A big skill-gap is plaguing the manufacturing industry, which has a hard time finding the right people to employ. How is education being updated to bring new engineers up to current standards? What is the role of industrial and public institutions in influencing education? How much knowledge can one attain with a get-dirty, DIY approach?

Countries around the globe are recognizing the impact AM is having on the manufacturing economy and, along with other advanced technologies, are redesigning curriculums to include these trends. Also, industrial conglomerates, who are the most afflicted by the skill gap issues, aren’t standing by: many are rising up to develop training centers and generate activities to turn the tide. Nonetheless, some students are taking matters into their own hands, not only applying themselves to learning but developing business ideas revolving around AM.

Singapore wants elementary schoolers learning 3D printing, robotics, more

Singapore’s Applied Learning Programme (ALP), which aims to deliver hands-on learning programs to primary schoolers, is being expanded. All schools will implement the program, which includes STEM activities like robotics, coding, and 3D printing, by the year 2023.

“Students learn by applying and by doing, and they learn beyond the classroom,” Ng explained. “They see for themselves how they can apply what they have learnt to the real world.” – Singapore’s Education Minister for Schools Ng Chee Meng

Read more about it here.

NCAM calls on industry to help plug additive manufacturing skills gap

MTC NCAM

Given the buzz around AM technologies, you would be forgiven for assuming the message has been received loud and clear but with the UK Government’s recent Industrial Strategy failing to highlight the importance of AM and around 62% of manufacturers planning to undertake some form of move to ‘Industry 4.0‘, the appeal for more education and relevant skills is extremely valid. Within the Manufacturing Technology Centre (MTC) in Coventry, the team at the UK’s National Centre for Additive Manufacture (NCAM) is currently seeking to answer that call by embarking on the task of addressing the AM skills gap.

Read more at TCT Mag.

3D Printing Entrepreneur Reveals Plan for 24h Sneaker Turnaround

A student entrepreneur who developed the idea, technology, and production of his own brand of custom 3D printed sneakers will see his “UnisBrands” products hit the market soon. Nick Unis, who is currently a final year accounting and finance student at Penn State University-Altoona, has been nurturing his idea for custom running shoes since high school. Having now joined the Happy Valley LaunchBox FastTrack Accelerator, Unis plans to ship the first UnisBrands shoes in Summer 2018, with the aim of averting 24 to 72 hours turnaround per pair.

Keep reading the article here.

 

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Matches made in heaven: the crossroads of innovation (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 62)

Technologies have often found it beneficial to tap into innovations, sometimes from quite different fields, to find new potential directions to explore. Considering 3D printing’s flexibility, it’s only logical to see it being employed to uplift the possibilities of this or that application. For example, AM enables a new generation of implants to include sensors embedded in them, for a better fit and smarter monitoring respectively. Similarly, in a little validation for us: IIoT is making helping Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems make most of its functions, feeding live, relevant and actionable data to businesses. The matrix of explorations is endless, and combining experimental technologies is showing us new ways to manufacture, design and ultimately, thing about innovation.

Renishaw Case Study: Benefits of Smart Implants with Sensor and 3D Printing Technologies

Renishaw and Western University previously set up the Additive Design in Surgical Solutions (ADEISS) Centre on the university’s campus, which brings together academics and clinicians to work on developing novel 3D printed medical devices. The institute is currently developing technology in the sensor implant field, and recently introduced its smart hip concept, which uses accelerometers and temperature sensors to collect patient data, which is later communicated to a remote device.

Read the full article here.

IIoT And ERP: Powerful Combination Fueled By Data

The IIoT bridges the shop floor and ERP software to allow for the creation and sharing of data in real time. With machine connections, such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and sensors, production data is linked to lot, serial and batch details for a seamless flow of information through the cloud. Utilizing data from sensors and other Big Data sources helps businesses analyze data quickly and make better informed decisions. Businesses can better monitor inventory replenishment, sales demands, parts replacement — they can improve virtually any business process to reduce operational and maintenance costs. This is exactly the approach Authentise is following with our data-driven MES.

Read more at Manufacturing Business Technology.

Combining augmented reality, 3D printing and a robotic arm to prototype in real time

Robotic Modeling Assistant (RoMA) is a joint project out of MIT and Cornell that brings together a variety of different emerging technologies in an attempt to build a better prototyping machine. Using an augmented reality headset and two controllers, the designer builds a 3D model using a CAD (computer-aided design) program. A robotic arm then goes to work constructing a skeletal model using a simple plastic depositing 3D printer mounted on its hand.

Read the full article at TechCrunch.

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The importance of recognized standards in AM (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 61)

As of now, AM has already proven its worth as a manufacturing tool worthy of consideration in many industrial sectors. If it is to find a foothold in every major industry, guaranteeing both stellar performances and safety, standards and best practices need to be delineated. Industrial partners want to ensure the viability of AM workflows on a scalable platform: this requires a thorough understanding of all processes, materials, pipeline steps and so on. Similarly, govt. agencies want to boost its propagation by maximizing safety and reliability across the board. ISO and others have already paved the way, but new partners are now entering: Oerlikon and Boeing are one example in which industrial partners seek common operational ground. The CECIMO European body is another, promoting the adoption of manufacturing standards and AM research centers pushing the bureaucracy forward when it comes to certifications.

Boeing partners Oerlikon to speed up adoption of 3D printing

Boeing is co-operating with Swiss engineering group Oerlikon to jointly develop additive manufacturing processes in a bid to accelerate the technology’s wider employment.

“The research will initially focus on industrializing titanium powder bed fusion AM and ensuring parts made with this process meet the flight requirements of the US Federal Aviation Administration and Department of Defense,” says Oerlikon.

Read more about it here.

AM In Europe Boosted By CECIMO Partnership

Map of CECIMO nations. Image via CECIMO
Map of CECIMO nations. Image via CECIMO

CECIMO, the body behind Europe’s additive manufacturing strategy, has announced a new partnership with EPMA, the European Powder Metallurgy Association. Together, under a joint memorandum of understanding (MOU), the two organizations are aiming to promote the adoption of 3D printing throughout established manufacturing industries.

“If Europe aims to remain a leader in advanced manufacturing production, it will need to succeed in the global race to industrialize additive manufacturing” – comments Filip Geerts, Director General of CECIMO

Read the full article here.

DNV GL launches AM Centre of Excellence to define certification standards for oil & gas and offshore & marine sectors

DNV GL metal part

DNV GL, a global risk assurance and risk management company, is to establish a Global Additive Manufacturing Centre of Excellence in Singapore.

Supported by the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB), DNV GL will consider qualification and certification, as well as provide training in AM for engineers. In the O&M sector, adoption of AM has been slow because of the challenges surrounding certification, according to DNV GL. The company, thus, wants to provide the industry with technical standards and guidelines to qualify and certify AM equipment, process, products and materials.

Read more at TCT Mag.

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Safety and reliability of metal AM parts (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 60)

3D printed metal parts are already being employed in very real world situations, from aircraft engine parts to wind turbines. In order to be applicable for these high stress scenarios, metal parts need to comply with very stringent performance standards. 3D printed brakes have been deemed suitable for a Bugatti Chiron, the most powerful super car in the company’s history. You can bet they’ve made their homework prior to putting their whole line of $3M cars on the line. Hydraulic parts manufacturers are utilizing AM to produce components faster and more efficiently than ever before, capable maintaining peak performance in highly pressurized applications. The research is still ongoing, especially in the material sciences. Scientists at the University of Kassel have been able to use AM with a particularly strong steel alloy, which will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of metal parts.

SLM Solutions Metal 3D Printing Brakes The Most Powerful Car In Bugatti History

Bugatti's

[…] 3D printing is implemented for next generation development of the Bugatti Chiron – a car with a price tag close to $3 million. Measuring 41 cm x 21 cm x 13.6 cm (L x W x H) the part claims, by volume, to be “the largest functional component” 3D printed out of titanium. It is also 2 kg lighter than its 4.9 kg machined aluminum counterpart.

“Technically, this is an extremely impressive brake caliper, and it also looks great.” – Frank Götzke, Head of New Technologies in Technical Development at Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S.

Read the full story here.

Aidro Uses Metal 3D Printing to Improve Hydraulic Components

Aidro was founded in 1982 by hydraulics engineer Paolo Tirelli. Today, they use metal 3D printing for making custom designs with complex geometries, lightweight parts, and rapid prototyping.

“With good design methods, we can 3D print a hydraulic manifold that can withstand pressure peaks in the system without any problems,” says Alberto Tacconelli, Managing Director. “We can increase the wall thickness and change the shapes of the channels where the FEM analysis indicates a potential failure.”

Read about in-depth examples at 3DPrint.

EBM 3D Printing Process Used to Process a Steel Alloy with High Damage Tolerance

For the first time, a research team at the University of Kassel in Germany has used additive manufacturing to process a steel alloy with extremely high damage tolerance, which will help in promoting safety and reliability of 3D printed metal parts. […] This type of alloy, thanks to its special deformation mechanisms, holds up very well, and the heat from the EBM process helps to avoid any unpredictable material properties, resulting in a significantly better inner material structure that protects against possible damage.

Read more about it here.

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Automation: going where humans can’t (or don’t want to) (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 59)

Automation is being employed to solve many of the challenges of the present day. In a sense, it is liberating us humans from menial or even dangerous tasks in favour of more stimulating exercises. For example, putting your life in the possibly dangerous environment of an ammunition factory was the only way for poor families to sustain themselves. Robotics and other technologies are not only putting unsafe jobs out of the list, are increasing productivity considerably. There are also societal changes that we are only now starting to foresee. Analyses show that certain dynamics are going to shift as demographic and economic factors evolve. For example, a number of countries with an aging population will need an increase in caregivers. Automation is already bringing to market solutions for human-machine relationship robots to take care of this. This trend is putting under the spotlight how technology is making certain jobs obsolete, inflating the already present preoccupation of joblessness. However, studies conducted by automation technologies show that however permeating these are, humans will not only always be required for complex and open-ended tasks, the new framework brought about by automation will create new jobs, such that never even existed before.

Robots Have Replaced Humans in 25% of China’s Ammunition Factories

Rifle bullets on wood table with low key scene. Close-up photo : Foto stock

Speaking with the South China Morning Post (SCMP), Xu Zhigang, a researcher with the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Shenyang Institute of Automation, said that nearly 25% of China’s ammunition factories have had their human workers replaced with “smart machines.” Interestingly enough, China didn’t turn to AI simply because it wants to lead AI adoption. It was instead because the factories were lacking in people who actually wanted to work in such dangerous environments.

Keep reading here.

Can Robots Tighten the Bolts on a Rickety Caregiver Sector?

Can Robots Tighten the Bolts on a Rickety Caregiver Sector?

In 15 years, the percentage of the population over 65 will more than double in Europe, Japan and the U.S. A tenfold increase in care workers will be required, at a time when the sector is relentlessly shrinking. At first glance, this could be a perfect opportunity for robots to fill a genuine social need—entrepreneurs and tech evangelists frequently talk of machines tackling the “dangerous and demeaning work” of carrying and cleaning patients.

Read the full article here.

Could Self-Driving Trucks Be Good for Truckers?

White tractor-trailers

Uber does not believe that self-driving trucks will be doing “dock to dock” runs for a very long time. They see a future in which self-driving trucks drive highway miles between what they call transfer hubs, where human drivers will take over for the last miles through complex urban and industrial terrain. […] Basically, if the self-driving trucks are used far more efficiently, it would drive down the cost of freight, which would stimulate demand, leading to more business. And, if more freight is out on the roads, and humans are required to run it around local areas, then there will be a greater, not lesser, need for truck drivers.

“If you believe the [automation] narrative that’s out there today, it is especially counterintuitive,”Alden Woodrow, the product lead for self-driving trucks at Uber, says, “because the more self-driving trucks you have and the higher utilization they have, the more jobs it creates.”

Read the full article in the Atlantic.

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Metal printing, the coming production phase (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 58)

Scalability of 3D printing in an industrial context requires a few hurdles to overcome, one of the foremost being printing speeds. Most current generation metal printers have printing times that can’t compete with common injection molding or CNC products, not to mention the time required for post-processing and more. Initially, the metal printing industry was focusing on different features to drive the growth of the sector, specifically material choice, precision and reliability. Now, companies like Seurat Technologies, Velo3D and Spee3D are poised to satisfy the demand to put 3D printers in the factory floor for good. As with FDM tech, SLS patents are expiring and opening the dam for new companies to be born. It’s only a matter of time before 3D printing is going to be competitive from a time standpoint with other traditional manufacturing technologies.

Is Velo3D secretly working to revolutionize 3D metal printing for robotics?

As you might recall, plastic 3D printing really took off back in 2009 when a key patent on deposition technology expired, opening the way for 3D printing technology to significantly drop in price. Metal 3D printing, by and large, relies on the far more expensive selective laser sintering technology, for which the patent expired in 2014. This was, as Silicon Valley expert Tekla Perry reminds the world, just before Velo3D was founded. All metal 3D printing experts, however, believe that the metal breakthrough is to come from the material side (rather than the SLS side), and Perry suggests that Velo3D could be working on that breakthrough.

Find out more about Velo3D here.

Seurat Technologies raises $13.5M to accelerate game-changing metal 3D printing technology

Seurat Technologies, a Silicon Valley-based startup, announces it has raised $13.5 million in a Series A funding round. The significant investment will reportedly be put towards funding and accelerating the company’s much-hyped metal additive manufacturing technology.

Read more about it here.

SPEE3D announces global launch of ‘Supersonic Metal 3D Printing’

SPEE3D, Melbourne, Australia, has announced the company’s official global launch and availability of its industrial metal Additive Manufacturing systems. Designed for scalable, just in time production, SPEE3D is said to be the world’s first metal 3D printer leveraging supersonic 3D deposition (SP3D) technology to deliver manufacturing grade printing at production speeds.

Rather than using heat to melt metal powders, SPEE3D’s patented technology uses supersonic deposition in which a rocket nozzle accelerates air up to three times the speed of sound to deliver manufacturing grade metal and high-density parts.

Read more about it here.

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Manufacturing agility: on-demand printing through AM (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 57)

The manufacturing model that has characterized the last two centuries was one of irrepressible rush to satisfy the demands of the market. Factories constantly spewed products and parts, even when all orders were satisfied, trusting on times when these might be requested again. Needless to say, this model is very wasteful and contains surplus expenses for stocking and unneeded manufacturing, the infamous “bullwhip effect”, that partake in a feeling of gambling on the market’s ups and downs. Both customers and companies are left unsatisfied. Zara, which makes 50% of its inventory close to the point of use, only sells 10% of its inventory at a discount. Its competitors, 30%.

Additive manufacturing provides the means for a more agile manufacturing framework, one that is capable of flexibly addressing new, and sudden, needs without falling back on warehouse stock. The concept can be applied to every industry on the planet: pharma companies can 3D print drugs on the fly and locally to address an urgent outbreak, constructions can be tailored to local requirements without shipping prefabs. To realize the potential of AM in addressing these demands, the pipeline must be enabled by software capable to provide a holistic overview of operations to nimbly set about whatever request it might face. That’s what we’re focused on at Authentise. Talk to us if you want to know more.

New ‘Reactionware’ 3D Printing System Spits Out Pharmaceuticals On-Demand

Philip Kitson and colleagues at the University of Glasgow have developed a new framework for 3D printing drug manufacturing devices on-site on an as-needed basis. All it requires is a $2,000 3D printer and a drug specification (the manufacturing processes required to produce it). Given such a specification, software created by Kitson’s group dictates to the printer exactly what sort of manufacturing hardware it needs to print that is then capable of producing a particular drug.

Read the rest of the article on Motherboard.

World’s First 3D Printed Toilets Coming to India With Singapore’s Hamilton Labs

Hamilton Labs' 3D printed toilet design complete with energy genertaing solar panel roof. Image via Hamilton Labs

In a new agreement with India’s Center for Rural Information and Action (CRIA) Hamilton Labs will be providing a robot operated 3D printer to “build fast, beautiful and comfortable toilets,” for the Madhubani district in Bihar which sprawls Eastern and Northern India.

Read more about it here.

Mass Production – Is 3D Printing Up To The Supply-Chain Challenge?

Custom designs of 3D printable model cups, from One Coffee Cup a Day | 30 days, 30 cups challenge by Bernat Cuni of Cunicode Design Studio

The Bullwhip Effect describes a phenomenon in which manufacturers build a huge inventory of products based on a forecast of customer demand. From the assumed position high on the supply chain, a manufacturer can misinterpret consumer purchasing behavior at retail level – resulting in a mass of unsaleable stock. Mass customization, i.e. making products to exact customer specifications, low-labor demands and product consolidation, gives 3D printing the potential to break free of the Bullwhip Effect, therefore leading to the question:

“If the Bullwhip Effect is a critical problem in any supply chain, would 3D printing be a solution?”

Read the full article here.

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The Scalability of IIoT Systems (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 56)

The IIoT is an acronym that’s being touted around industrial settings for years now. As it stands for Industrial Internet of Things, its goal is similar to what common household IoT devices try to achieve: smart control and monitoring of operations, at any scale and complexity. Approaching the subject can look daunting and many companies think the technical effort is out of reach without any practical benefit. That’s because we’re not making benefits clear enough to the operators. Our current deployments are expensive one-off customs and those that go beyond that are often simple dashboards or at best predicitive maintenance tools – both deliver none or very little ROI by themselves.

While we’re trying to build scalable process efficiency systems using IIOT data at Authentise the key steps to make IIoT really scalable are flexible platforms that can process all kinds of data for different outcomes and are very easy for untrained operators to program. The devices required to obtain, elaborate data and to generate insights are now very cheap and the market is sprouting solutions tailored to every occasion. Now the software interfaces needed to manage the system need to becoming friendlier, cheaper or even open source, enabling the full spectrum of applications to talk to each other frictionlessly. All of this makes for a framework that can scale from a single piping temperature sensor to the entire production pipeline. It’s been reported that 86% of industrial orgs are already adopting IIoT solutions, and it doesn’t pertain only to big corporations. Breweries can leverage data from their distilling operation just as much as Lockheed Martin does from its F-35 factory floor. While we only currently unlock 5% of available data, it’s easy to see the promise going forward.

Shipyard 4.0 Concept Features 3D Printing, Digital Twins, Advanced Technologies for Shipbuilding in Spain and Australia

In order to reduce business costs and increase productivity in line with Industry 4.0, Navantia has implemented the Shipyard 4.0 model, which will apply and optimize these technologies for applications in shipbuilding. The model has been implemented in Navantia Spain’s Ferrol shipyard in order to build next-generation F110 frigates for the Spanish Navy […] The Shipyard 4.0 model will enhance the outcomes of Navantia Australia’s SEA 5000 and Continuous Build Program by helping to develop a sustainable shipbuilding industry for the Navy, creating a new skilled workforce and modern facilities for both the shipyard and the supply chain, and setting up a modern ICT infrastructure that will support the digital twin (ship zero) of the shipyard, as well as for the ship.

Read more about Navantia Shipyard 4.0 here.

New study reveals rise of IIoT adoption in manufacturing

According to the 2017 study [by Bsquare], 86% of industrial organizations are currently adopting IoT solutions and 84% believe those solutions are very or extremely effective. In addition, 95% believe that IoT has a significant or tremendous impact on their industry. However, the study also shows that most IIoT investments are focused on connectivity (78%) and data visualization (83%). In addition, only 48% are doing advanced analytics on that data and only a small number (28%) are automating the application of insights derived from analytics.

Read more stats at Modern Materials Handling.

Breweries Tapping the IIoT to Produce Your Favorite Brew

By creating that virtual environment and installing IIoT sensors throughout the production and packaging environments, breweries that have adopted advanced analytics to process the collected data can help predict equipment lag or failure before they disrupt production. At the very least, the sensors can help to provide critical insights to identify the root of the problem to minimize downtime.

Read the full article here.

 

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Reinventing the Mundane: rediscovering potential through AM (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 55)

AM is giving us the capabilities to drastically improve the performance of many of the parts and systems around us. This is because of its much greater design freedom, material choice, density control and other features that make AM a manufacturing game-changer. With this tool in our hands, we can really start to think taking mundane objects to the next level. Developing these applications shows where AM needs to improve to start making a dent. For example, special certifications need to be worked for it to be safely implemented pervasively. Currently there aren’t even 50 standards for the whole range of additive manufacturing materials. Even traditional glass blowing has over 100. The potential is there not only to get better performance out of every item, but to create a whole range of entirely smarter, more environmentally friendly products unthinkable in the past: Nuclear spare parts, efficient heat exchangers and wireless communication without electronics, to name but a few.

Westinghouse Looks to Advance 3D Printing in the Nuclear Industry

Now power company Westinghouse plans to be the first company to install a 3D printed fuel component in a commercial nuclear reactor.
Westinghouse is looking to lower the cost of replacement parts as well as to speed the qualification of 3D printed materials.

“These cost and lead time reduction estimates still look appropriate for certain replacement castings, using current cost estimates for AM casting moulds and the associated foundries/casting processes,” said Clint Armstrong, Advanced Manufacturing Expert at Westinghouse.

Read the full article here.

HiETA Uses Renishaw Metal 3D Printer to Take Heat Exchangers From Prototyping to Commercial Production

HiETA develops metal AM methods to produce lightweight, complex structures for heat-management applications, such as internal combustion engine components, turbo machinery, recuperators, and heat exchangers for fuel cells. The first successful 3D printed component was built in 17 days, which HiETA and Renishaw worked to bring down to eighty hours by optimizing the process parameters and improving both the software and hardware. According to tests, the component, which achieved 30% lower weight and volume, met the requirements for heat transfer and pressure drop.

Read more about it here.

3D Printing Wireless Connected Objects

University of Washington researchers have developed a way to 3D print plastic objects and sensors capable of communicating wirelessly with other smart devices, without the need for batteries or other electronics.

 

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Automation is coming for our jobs: are we ready? (Authentise Weekly News-In-Review – Week 54)

Automation is a process that’s being on-going for the past 40 years to take ever more complex tasks and have machines take over. This means that a lot of manual, repetitive tasks have been handed over to robotic arms and minds, freeing the humans to do something more elevated, and possible more stimulating. This will constitute a monumental impact on society, with as many as 800 million workers projected to be displaced by 2030. Nonetheless, there are a few key issues in the way of that vision: skill gaps make it hard to change careers, our social systems aren’t suited to support workers through these new shifts and this phenomenon could accentuate present issues that we are pressing to eliminate, like gender and racial discrimination in the form of pay gaps. For its promises of utmost freedom, there are a few angles to iron out before it becomes reality, creating a suitable environment to guarantee innovation and social welfare (like Sweden!).

Automation Could Displace 800 Million Workers Worldwide By 2030, Study Says

A coming wave of job automation could force between 400 million and 800 million people worldwide out of a job in the next 13 years, according to a new study. A report released this week from the research arm of the consulting firm McKinsey & Company forecasts scenarios in which 3 percent to 14 percent of workers around the world — in 75 million to 375 million jobs — will have to acquire new skills and switch occupations by 2030.

“There are few precedents” to the challenge of retraining hundreds of millions of workers in the middle of their careers, the report’s authors say.

Read the full article here.

How Robots Could Make the Gender Pay Gap Even Worse

A new report published Thursday suggests that robots could make the gender pay gap even worse, stoking existing fears and uncertainty around the concept of automation. In a paper titled “Managing automation Employment, inequality and ethics in the digital age,” the Institute for Public Policy Research argued that a greater share of jobs that women hold—46.8% versus 40.9% for men—have the technical potential to be automated since female workers are more likely to hold low-skill “automatable” occupations. Paired with women’s underrepresentation in high-skill occupations that may be complemented by technology, that means that automation could exacerbate gender inequality.

Read more here.

The Robots Are Coming, and Sweden Is Fine

Capture copy

Sweden’s famously generous social welfare system makes this a place not prone to fretting about automation — or much else, for that matter.

Mr. Persson, 35, sits in front of four computer screens, one displaying the loader he steers as it lifts freshly blasted rock containing silver, zinc and lead. […] He is cognizant that robots are evolving by the day. Boliden is testing self-driving vehicles to replace truck drivers. But Mr. Persson assumes people will always be needed to keep the machines running. He has faith in the Swedish economic model and its protections against the torment of joblessness.

“I’m not really worried,” he says. “There are so many jobs in this mine that even if this job disappears, they will have another one. The company will take care of us.”

 

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